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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters


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Environmental Microbiology (EM)  |  Microbial Ecology and Diversity

Microbiol. Biotechnol. Lett. 2022; 50(1): 89-94

Received: October 8, 2021; Revised: December 30, 2021; Accepted: January 6, 2022

Triclosan Resistant Bacteria from Sewage Water: Culture Based Diversity Assessments and Co-Resistance Profiling to Other Antibiotics

Muhmmad Salman1†, Noor Ul Bashar1†, Uzma Kiran1, Zuhra Shafiq1, Fareesa Khan1, Raees Khan3, Farrukh Hussain1, Sudhair Abbas Bangash2, Yasin Ahmad1, and Shabir Ahmad1*

1Institute of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Pharmacy, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan 3Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Punjab 46000, Pakistan

Correspondence to :
Shabir Ahmad,

Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent used in various human personal care products against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of TCSresistant bacteria in sewage water in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan, for the first time. TCS-supplemented Luria Bertani (LB) agar was used to isolate TCS-tolerant bacteria. A total of 17 TCSresistant isolates were randomly selected from a large pool of bacteria that showed growth on TCS-supplemented LB agar. Based on gram staining and physiochemical characteristics, the isolated strains were identified as Salmonella typhi (n = 6), Escherichia coli (n = 4), Citrobacter freundii (n = 4), Proteus mirabilis (n = 1), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 1), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 1). The Triclosan mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the isolates of Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 23.66 μg ml-1, 18.75 μg ml-1, 42 μg ml-1, 32 μg ml-1, 64 μg ml-1, and 128 μg ml-1, respectively. The antibiogram revealed that all isolates were resistant to penicillin G (100%) and linezolid (100%), followed by ampicillin (94%), tetracycline (76%), tazobactam (76%), sulbactam/cefoperazone (64%), polymyxin PB (58%), amikacin (29.41%), aztreonam (29.41%), imipenem (5%), and gentamicin (5%). This is the first known study regarding the isolation of TCStolerant bacteria from sewage water in Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan. It was concluded that all the TCS-resistant isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR) gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, mostly belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family.

Keywords: Triclosan, waste water, resistance, minimum inhibitory concentration, cross-resistance, antibiotics

Graphical Abstract

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