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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters

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Molecular and Cellular Microbiology (MCM)  |  Host-Microbe Interaction and Pathogenesis

Microbiol. Biotechnol. Lett. 2022; 50(1): 1-14

https://doi.org/10.48022/mbl.2111.11012

Received: November 30, 2021; Revised: December 30, 2021; Accepted: December 31, 2021

Acyl Homoserine Lactone in Interspecies Bacterial Signaling

Poonam Kanojiya, Rajashri Banerji, and Sunil D. Saroj*

Symbiosis School of Biological Sciences, Symbiosis International (Deemed University), Pune-412115, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence to :
Sunil D. Saroj,       sunil.saroj@ssbs.edu.in

Bacteria communicate with each other through an intricate communication mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). QS regulates different behavioral aspects in bacteria, such as biofilm formation, sporulation, virulence gene expression, antibiotic production, and bioluminescence. Several different chemical signals and signal detection systems play vital roles in promoting highly efficient intra- and interspecies communication. Gram-negative bacteria coordinate gene regulation through the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Gram-positive bacteria do not code for AHL production, while some gram-negative bacteria have an incomplete AHL-QS system. Despite this fact, these microbes can detect AHLs owing to the presence of LuxR solo receptors. Various studies have reported the role of AHLs in interspecies signaling. Moreover, as bacteria live in a polymicrobial community, the production of extracellular compounds to compete for resources is imperative. Thus, AHL-mediated signaling and inhibition are considered to affect virulence in bacteria. In the current review, we focus on the synthesis and regulation mechanisms of AHLs and highlight their role in interspecies bacterial signaling. Exploring interspecies bacterial signaling will further help us understand host-pathogen interactions, thereby contributing to the development of therapeutic strategies intended to target chronic polymicrobial infections.

Keywords: Quorum sensing, interspecies signaling, LuxR solo, virulence, bacterial communication, pathogenesis

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