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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters

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Molecular and Cellular Microbiology (MCM)  |  Host-Microbe Interaction and Pathogenesis

Microbiol. Biotechnol. Lett. 2021; 49(4): 467-477

https://doi.org/10.48022/mbl.2107.07008

Received: July 18, 2021; Revised: November 19, 2021; Accepted: November 19, 2021

Exploring Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Factors; Special Emphasis on Staphyloxanthin

Fatma Al-zahraa A. Yehia*, Nehal Yousef, and Momen Askoura*

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, 44519, Egypt

Correspondence to :
Fatma Al-zahraa A.Yehia,      zahra.ahmed.yehia@gmail.com
Momen Askoura,                    momenaskora@yahoo.com

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known pathogen that can cause diseases in humans. It can cause both mild superficial skin infections and serious deep tissue infections, including pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis. To establish host infection, S. aureus manages a complex regulatory network to control virulence factor production in both temporal and host locations. Among these virulence factors, staphyloxanthin, a carotenoid pigment, has been shown to play a leading role in S. aureus pathogenesis. In addition, staphyloxanthin provides integrity to the bacterial cell membrane and limits host oxidative defense mechanisms. The overwhelming rise of Staphylococcus resistance to routinely used antibiotics has necessitated the development of novel anti-virulence agents to overcome this resistance. This review presents an overview of the chief virulence determinants in S. aureus. More attention will be paid to staphyloxanthin, which could be a possible target for anti-virulence agents.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, virulence, anti-virulence therapy, staphyloxanthin

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