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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters

Research Article(보문)

Fermentation Microbiology  |  Applied Microbiology

Microbiol. Biotechnol. Lett.

Received: July 24, 2023; Revised: October 14, 2023

Antibiotic reversal activity of Piper longum fruit extracts against Staphylococcus aureus multi-drug resistant phenotype

Ibrar Khan 2*, Maryam Salah Ud Din , Umar Farooq Gohar , Hamid Mukhtar , John Morris 3, Soisuda Pornpukdeewattana , Gaetano Scotto and Salvatore Massa

1Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan, 2Abbottabad University of Science & Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan., 3School of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok,Thailand, 4School of Food Industry, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand, 5Chair of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy, 6Department of Agriculture, Food, Natural Resource and Engineering, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy

Correspondence to :
Ibrar Khan, E-mail :


Irrational and injudicious use of antibiotics, easy availability of them as over-the-counter drugs in developing countries, and lack of regulatory policies governing antimicrobial use in humans, animals, and agriculture, has led to the development of multi-drug resistance (MDR) bacteria. The use of medicinal plants can be considered as an alternative, with a consequent impact on microbial resistance. We tested extracts of Piper longum fruits as new natural products as agents for reversing the resistance to antibiotics. Six crude extracts of P. longum fruits were used against multiple-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. Antibiotic resistance reversal analysis used the antibiotic susceptibility testing disc method. Apart from cefoxitin and erythromycin, all other antibiotics used (lincosamides [clindamycin], quinolones [levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin], and aminoglycosides [amikacin and gentamicin]) were enhanced by P. longum extracts. The extracts that showed the greatest synergy with the antibiotics were EAPL (ethyl acetate [extract of] P. longum), n-BPL (n-butanol [extract of] P. longum), and MPL (methanolic [extract of] Piper longum. This study suggested that P. longum has the potential to reverse antibiotic resistance and increase the efficacy of current drugs. However, future studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying antimicrobial synergy and to identify the active biomolecules from P. longum responsible for the synergy in S. aureus.

Keywords: Piper longum, antibiotic resistance reversal, antibiotics, plant extracts

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