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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters


Environmental Microbiology  |  Microbial Ecology and Diversity

Microbiol. Biotechnol. Lett.

Received: October 8, 2021; Revised: December 30, 2021

Triclosan Resistant Bacteria from Sewage Water: Culture Based Diversity Assessments and Co-Resistance Profiling to other Antibiotics

Shabir Ahmad 1*, Muhmmad Salman 1, Noor Ul Bashar 1, Uzma Kiran 1, Yasin Ahmad 1, Zuhra Shafiq 1, Fareesa Khan 1, Raees Khan 2, Farrukh Hussain 1 and Sudhair Abbas Bangash 1

1Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan, 2National University of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Correspondence to :
Shabir Ahmad, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan [25000]
Tel : +92915230931, Fax : +92915230931, E-mail :


Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent used in various human personal care products against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of TCS resistant bacteria in sewage water in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan for the first time. TCS supplemented Luria Bertani agar (LB) was used to isolate TCS tolerant bacteria. A total of 17 TCS resistant isolates were randomly selected from a large pool of bacteria showing growth on TCS supplemented LB agar. Based on gram staining and physiochemical characteristics, the isolated strains were identified as Salmonella typhi (N=6), Escherichia coli (N=4), Citrobacter freundii, (N=4), Proteus mirabilis (N=1), Enterobacter cloacae (N=1) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (N=1). The Triclosan mean Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the isolates of Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 23.66 µg mL-1, 18.75 µg mL-1, 42 µg mL -1, 32 µg mL-1, 64 µg mL-1, 128 µg mL-1 respectively. Antibiogram of all isolates revealed that all isolates were resistant to Penicillin G (100%) and Linezolid (100%), followed by Ampicillin (94%), Tetracycline (76%), Tazobactam (76%), Sulbactam/cefoperazone (64%), Polymyxin PB (58%), Amikacin (29.41%), Aztreonam (29.41%), Imipenem (5%) and Gentamicin (5%). To the best of our knowledge this was the first study regarding the isolation of TCS tolerant bacteria from sewage water in Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan. It was concluded that all the TCS resistant isolates were multidrug (MDR) resistant gram negative rod shape bacteria mostly belonging to Enterobacteriaceae family

Keywords: Triclosan, Waste water, Resistance, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Cross-resistance, Antibiotics

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