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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters


Molecular and Cellular Microbiology  |  Host-Microbe Interaction and Pathogenesis

Microbiol. Biotechnol. Lett.

Received: July 18, 2021; Revised: November 19, 2021

Exploring Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors; special emphasis on staphyloxanthin

Fatma Al-zahraa A.Yehia *, Nehal Yousef and Momen Askoura *

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University

Correspondence to :
Fatma Al-zahraa A.Yehia [44519]
Fax : +201006477546, E-mail :
Momen Askoura, E-mail :


Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known pathogen that is capable of causing disease in humans. S. aureus can cause both mild superficial skin infections and serious deep tissue infections, such as osteomyelitis, pneumonia, and infective endocarditis. In order to establish host infection, S. aureus manages a complex regulatory network to control virulence factors production in both a temporal and host location manner. Among these virulence factors, a carotenoid pigment which is known as staphyloxanthin has been shown to play an important role in bacterial pathogenesis. In addition, staphyloxanthin provides integrity to bacterial cell membrane and limits host oxidative defense mechanisms. The overwhelming rise of Staphylococcus resistance to commonly used antibiotics has created an urgent need for innovative anti-virulence agents in order to overcome this resistance. This review aims to present an overview of major virulence factors in S. aureus. More attention will be paid to the characteristic carotenoid pigment; staphyloxanthin, which could be helpful for the development of anti-virulence agents

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, virulence, anti-virulence therapy, staphyloxanthin

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