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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters

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Microbial Biotechnology  |  Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering

Microbiol. Biotechnol. Lett. 2020; 48(3): 252-266

https://doi.org/10.4014/mbl.2004.04006

Received: April 17, 2020; Accepted: July 20, 2020

A Comprehensive Study of SARS-CoV-2:From 2019-nCoV to COVID-19 Outbreak

Abdul Waris1, Muhammad Ali1, Atta Ullah Khan2, Asmat Ali3 and Abdul Baset4*

1Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 15320, Pakistan 2Department of Biotechnology, University of Malakand Chakdara, Dir Lower 18800, Pakistan 3Centre for Human Genetics, Hazara University Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 21120, Pakistan 4Department of Zoology, Bacha Khan University Charsadda, Pakistan

Correspondence to :
Abdul  Baset,     drabdulbaset@bkuc.edu.pk

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious pneumonia that has spread throughout the world. It is caused by a novel, single stranded RNA virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Genetic analysis revealed that, phylogenetically, the SARS-CoV-2 is related to severe acute respiratory syndrome-like viruses seen in bats. Because of this, bats are considered as a possible primary reservoir. The World Health Organization has declared the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic. As of May 27, 2020, more than 5,406,282 confirmed cases, and 343,562 confirmed deaths have been reported worldwide. Currently, there are no approved vaccines or antiviral drugs available against COVID-19. Newly developed vaccines are in the first stage of clinical trials, and it may take a few months to a few years for their commercialization. At present, remdesivir and chloroquine are the promising drugs for treating COVID-19 patients. In this review, we summarize the diversity, genetic variations, primary reservoirs, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment strategies, and future prospects with respect to controlling the spread of COVID-19.

Keywords: Coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, COVID-19 outbreak, SARS-CoV-2, diversity, epidemiology

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