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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters

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Molecular and Cellular Microbiology (MCM)  |  Microbiome

Microbiol. Biotechnol. Lett. 2022; 50(1): 147-156

https://doi.org/10.48022/mbl.2110.10011

Received: October 27, 2021; Revised: November 19, 2021; Accepted: November 21, 2021

Prevalence of Multi-Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Children with Urinary Tract Infection from Baghdad, Iraq

Hamzah Abdulrahman Salman1*, Alaa kamil Alhameedawi2, Sarah Mohammed Saeed Alsallameh3, Ghofran Muhamad4, and Zahraa Taha4

1Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, College of Medical Sciences Techniques, The University of Mashreq, Baghdad 10022, Iraq 2Ministry of EducationGeneral Directorate for Education/Rusafa2, Baghdad 10045, Iraq 3Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, College of Health and Medical Techniques, Gilgamesh Alhliya University, Baghdad 10022, Iraq 4Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Sader Al Iraq University College, Baghdad 10006, Iraq

Correspondence to :
Hamzah Abdulrahman Salman,        hamza.alayash@gmail.com

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infections in different age groups, including children. Bacteria are the main etiological agents of UTIs. The aim of the present study was to isolate, identify, and determine the antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated from children with UTIs from Baghdad, Iraq. Three hundred and two urine samples were collected from children aged 6 months to 12 years. The samples were cultured on blood agar and MacConkey agar. The selected colonies were subjected to biochemical tests and antibiotic susceptibility analysis using the Vitek® 2 Compact automated microbial identification system. In this sample, 299 bacteria were identified, of which, 267 were gram-negative bacteria, and 32 were gram-positive bacteria. Escherichia coli (56%) was the most commonly isolated gram-negative bacteria, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14%), Enterobacter spp. (10.48%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.36%), Proteus spp. (7.8%), Acinetobacter baumannii (1.5%), and Morganella morganii (0.37%). Enterococcus faecalis (62.5%) was the most commonly detected gram-positive bacteria, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (37.5%). E. coli and P. aeruginosa were the most antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Among the tested antibiotics, meropenem showed 100% sensitivity, followed by imipenem (97.4%), amikacin (91.8%), and tobramycin (83.5%). In contrast, the high frequencies of resistance were observed with cefixime (93.2%), cefotaxime (78.7%), and ceftriaxone/cefotaxime (71.2%). In conclusion, carbapenems and aminoglycosides are highly recommended for the empirical treatment of UTIs, while, Quinolones, penicillins, and cephalosporins are not suggested. Frequent antibiotics susceptibility testing are warranted to determine the resistance pattern of UTI bacteria.

Keywords: Multidrug resistance, UTI, Vitek 2 compact, antibiotic susceptibility testing

Graphical Abstract


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