Article Search
닫기

Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters

보문(Article)

View PDF

Food Microbiology (FM)  |  Probiotics in Nutrition and Health

Microbiol. Biotechnol. Lett. 2021; 49(4): 501-509

https://doi.org/10.48022/mbl.2106.06012

Received: June 21, 2021; Revised: September 22, 2021; Accepted: September 23, 2021

Isolation and Characterization of Potential Starter Yeasts from Traditional Moroccan Sourdoughs

Mouna Aouine, Asmae Misbah, Soumya Elabed, Abdelatif Haggoud, Iraqui Houssaini Mohammed, and Saad Ibnsouda Koraichi*

Laboratory of Microbial Biotechnology And Bioactive Molecules, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, Fez 30000, Morocco

Correspondence to :
Saad Ibnsouda,     saad.ibnsouda@usmba.ac.ma

The increasing demand for baked products has given a boost to research on isolation and selection of novel yeast strains with improved leavening activity. Twelve sourdough samples were collected from several localities of the Fez region in Morocco. The pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) values of these samples varied from 3.03-4.63 and 14-17.5 ml of 0.1 N NaOH/10 g of sourdough, respectively, while yeast counts ranged from 5.3 6.77 Log CFU/g. Thirty-two yeast isolates were obtained and evaluated for their leavening ability. Out of all isolates, four yeasts molecularly identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae (three strains) and Kluyveromyces marxianus (one strain) showed highest specific volumes of 4.69, 4.55, 4.35 and 4.1 cm3/g, respectively. These strains were further assessed for their tolerance to high concentrations of salt, sugar, elevated temperatures, and low pH conditions. K. marxianus showed higher resistance than the S. cerevisiae. Thus, Moroccan sourdoughs harbor technologically relevant yeasts that could be used as potential starters for bread preparation.

Keywords: Sourdough, baker&rsquo,s yeast, leavening ability, bread, stress

Graphical Abstract


  1. Newberry MP, Phan-Thien N, Larroque OR, Tanner RI, Larsen NG. 2002. Dynamic and elongation rheology of yeasted bread doughs. Cereal Chem. 79: 874-879.
  2. Liao Y, Miller RA, Hoseney RC. 1998. Role of hydrogen peroxide produced by baker’s yeast on dough rheology. Cereal Chem. 75:612-616.
  3. Romano A, Toraldo G, Cavella S, Masi P. 2007. Description of leavening of bread dough with mathematical modelling. J. Food Eng. 83: 142-148.
  4. Poitrenaud B. 2004. Baker’s yeast, pp. 695-719, Handbook of food and beverage fermentation technology. Marcel Dekker, USA.
  5. Gélinas P. 2012. In search of perfect growth media for Baker’s yeast production: Mapping patents. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 11: 13-33.
  6. Phaff HJ, Miller MW, Mrak EM. 2013. The life of yeasts. 2th Ed. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, USA.
  7. Dequin S. 2001. The potential of genetic engineering for improving brewing, wine-making and baking yeasts. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56: 577-588.
    Pubmed
  8. Ostergaard S, Olsson L, Nielsen J. 2000. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64: 34-50.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  9. Li H, Li Z, Qu J, Wang J. 2017. Bacterial diversity in traditional Jiaozi and sourdough revealed by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 81: 319-325.
  10. Gänzle M, Ripari V. 2016. Composition and function of sourdough microbiota: From ecological theory to bread quality. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 239: 19-25.
    Pubmed
  11. De Vuyst L, Harth H, Van Kerrebroeck S, Leroy F. 2016. Yeast diversity of sourdoughs and associated metabolic properties and functionalities. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 239: 26-34.
    Pubmed
  12. Minervini F, Di Cagno R, Lattanzi A, De Angelis M, Antonielli L, Cardinali G, et al. 2012. Lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiotas of 19 sourdoughs used for traditional/typical Italian breads:interactions between ingredients and microbial species diversity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78: 1251-1264.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  13. Alfonzo A, Urso V, Corona O, Francesca N, Amato G, Settanni L, et al. 2016. Development of a method for the direct fermentation of semolina by selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 239: 65-78.
    Pubmed
  14. Gobbetti M, Minervini F, Pontonio E, Di Cagno R, De Angelis M. 2016. Drivers for the establishment and composition of the sourdough lactic acid bacteria biota. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 239: 3-18.
    Pubmed
  15. Gänzle M, Gobbetti M. 2013. Physiology and Biochemistry of Lactic Acid Bacteria, pp. 183-216, In Gobbetti M, Gänzle M (eds.), Handbook on Sourdough Biotechnology. Springer US, Boston, MA, USA.
  16. Huys G, Daniel H-M, De Vuyst L. 2013. Taxonomy and biodiversity of sourdough yeasts and lactic acid bacteria, pp. 105-154. In Gobbetti M, Gänzle M (eds.), Handbook on Sourdough Biotechnology. Springer US, Boston, MA., USA.
  17. Perricone M, Bevilacqua A, Corbo MR, Sinigaglia M. 2014. Technological characterization and probiotic traits of yeasts isolated from Altamura sourdough to select promising microorganisms as functional starter cultures for cereal-based products. Food Microbiol. 38: 26-35.
    Pubmed
  18. Katina K, Salmenkallio-Marttila M, Partanen R, Forssell P, Autio K. 2006. Effects of sourdough and enzymes on staling of high-fibre wheat bread. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 39: 479-491.
  19. Kariluoto S, Edelmann M, Nyström L, Sontag-Strohm T, Salovaara H, Kivelä R, et al. 2014. In situ enrichment of folate by microorganisms in beta-glucan rich oat and barley matrices. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 176: 38-48.
    Pubmed
  20. Türk M, Sandberg A-S, Carlsson N-G, Andlid T. 2000. Inositol hexaphosphate hydrolysis by Baker’s yeast. Capacity, kinetics, and degradation products. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48: 100-104.
    Pubmed
  21. Moslehi-Jenabian S, Lindegaard L, Jespersen L. 2010. Beneficial effects of probiotic and food borne yeasts on human health. Nutrients 2: 449-473.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  22. Zhou N, Schifferdecker AJ, Gamero A, Compagno C, Boekhout T, Piškur J, et al. 2017. Kazachstania gamospora and Wickerhamomyces subpelliculosus: Two alternative baker’s yeasts in the modern bakery. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 250: 45-58.
    Pubmed
  23. Aslankoohi E, Herrera-Malaver B, Rezaei MN, Steensels J, Courtin CM, Verstrepen KJ. 2016. Non-conventional yeast strains increase the aroma complexity of bread. PLoS One 11: e0165126.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  24. Pacheco A, Santos J, Chaves S, Almeida J, Leão C, Sousa MJ. 2012. The emerging role of the yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii in bread and wine production: using genetic manipulation to study molecular basis of physiological responses. Struct. Funct. Food Eng. Rij. InTech 339-370.
  25. Almeida MJ, Pais C. 1996. Leavening ability and freeze tolerance of yeasts isolated from traditional corn and rye bread doughs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 4401-4404.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  26. AACC. Approved methods of the AACC. Titratable Acidity. Method 02-31.01. 11th Ed. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, USA.
  27. Harju S, Fedosyuk H, Peterson KR. 2004. Rapid isolation of yeast genomic DNA: Bust n’Grab. BMC Biotechnol. 4: 1-6.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  28. Lhomme E, Lattanzi A, Dousset X, Minervini F, De Angelis M, Lacaze G, et al. 2015. Lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiotas of sixteen French traditional sourdoughs. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 215: 161-170.
    Pubmed
  29. Arendt EK, Ryan LA, Dal Bello F. 2007. Impact of sourdough on the texture of bread. Food Microbiol. 24: 165-174.
    Pubmed
  30. Palla M, Agnolucci M, Calzone A, Giovannetti M, Di Cagno R, Gobbetti M, et al. 2019. Exploitation of autochthonous Tuscan sourdough yeasts as potential starters. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 302:59-68.
    Pubmed
  31. Hammes WP, Brandt MJ, Francis KL, Rosenheim J, Seitter MF, Vogelmann SA. 2005. Microbial ecology of cereal fermentations. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 16: 4-11.
  32. Asyikeen ZN, Ma’aruf AG, Sahilah AM, Khan AM, Aida WW. 2013. A new source of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a leavening agent in bread making. Int. Food Res. J. 20: 967.
  33. Caballero R, Olguín P, Cruz-Guerrero A, Gallardo F, García-Garibay M, Gómez-Ruiz L. 1995. Evaluation of Kluyveromyces marxianus as baker’s yeast. Food Res. Int. 28: 37-41.
  34. Karim A, Gerliani N, Aïder M. 2020. Kluyveromyces marxianus: An emerging yeast cell factory for applications in food and biotechnology. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 333: 108818.
    Pubmed
  35. Bonekamp FJ, Oosterom J. 1994. On the safety of Kluyveromyces lactis—a review. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 41: 1-3.
  36. Nikolaou E, Soufleros EH, Bouloumpasi E, Tzanetakis N. 2006. Selection of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains according to their oenological characteristics and vinification results. Food Microbiol. 23: 205-211.
    Pubmed
  37. Joosten H, Northolt MD. 1989. Detection, growth, and amineproducing capacity of lactobacilli in cheese. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55: 2356-2359.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  38. Oda Y, Ouchi K. 1990. Hybridization of bakers’ yeast by the raremating method to improve leavening ability in dough. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 12: 989-993.
  39. Randez-Gil F, Córcoles-Sáez I, Prieto JA. 2013. Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker’s yeast: relevance to baking. Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 4: 191-214.
    Pubmed
  40. Donalies UE, Nguyen HT, Stahl U, Nevoigt E. 2008. Improvement of Saccharomyces yeast strains used in brewing, wine making and baking. Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 111: 67-98.
    Pubmed
  41. Vaisey M, Unrau AM. 1964. Flour composition, chemical constituents of flour from cytologically synthesized and natural cereal species. J. Agric. Food Chem. 12: 84-86.
  42. Kurtzman CP, Mateo RQ, Kolecka A, Theelen B, Robert V, Boekhout T. 2015. Advances in yeast systematics and phylogeny and their use as predictors of biotechnologically important metabolic pathways. FEMS Yeast Res. 15: fov050.
    Pubmed
  43. Noort MW, Bult JH, Stieger M, Hamer RJ. 2010. Saltiness enhancement in bread by inhomogeneous spatial distribution of sodium chloride. J. Cereal Sci. 52: 378-386.
  44. Quílez J, Ruiz JA, Romero MP. 2006. Relationships between sensory flavor evaluation and volatile and nonvolatile compounds in commercial wheat bread type baguette. J. Food Sci. 71: S423S427.
  45. Takagi H, Shima J. 2015. Stress Tolerance of Baker’s Yeast During Bread-Making Processes, pp. 23-42, In Takagi H, Kitagaki H (eds.), Stress Biology of Yeasts and Fungi: Applications for Industrial Brewing and Fermentation. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
    KoreaMed
  46. Struyf N, Van der Maelen E, Hemdane S, Verspreet J, Verstrepen KJ, Courtin CM. 2017. Bread dough and baker’s yeast: An uplifting synergy. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 16: 850-867.
    Pubmed
  47. Zhang J, Lv C, Tong J, Liu J, Liu J, Yu D, et al. 2016. Optimization and microbial community analysis of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge based on microwave pretreatment. Bioresour. Technol. 200: 253-261.
    Pubmed
  48. Verstrepen KJ, Iserentant D, Malcorps P, Derdelinckx G, Van Dijck P, Winderickx J, et al. 2004. Glucose and sucrose: hazardous fastfood for industrial yeast? Trends Biotechnol. 22: 531-537.
    Pubmed
  49. Saini P, Beniwal A, Vij S. 2017. Physiological response of Kluyveromyces marxianus during oxidative and osmotic stress. Process Biochem. 56: 21-29.
  50. Aldiguier AS, Alfenore S, Cameleyre X, Goma G, Uribelarrea JL, Guillouet SE, et al. 2004. Synergistic temperature and ethanol effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae dynamic behaviour in ethanol bio-fuel production. Bioprocess Biosyst. Eng. 26: 217-222.
    Pubmed
  51. Torija MJ, Rozes N, Poblet M, Guillamón JM, Mas A. 2003. Effects of fermentation temperature on the strain population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 80: 47-53.
  52. Fonseca GG, Heinzle E, Wittmann C, Gombert AK. 2008. The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus and its biotechnological potential. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 79: 339-354.
    Pubmed
  53. Maaruf A, Sahilah A, Khan MA. 2011. Leavening ability of yeast isolated from different local fruits in bakery product. Sains Malays. 40: 1413-1419.
  54. Reale A, Di Renzo T, Preziuso M, Panfili G, Cipriano L, Messia MC. 2019. Stabilization of sourdough starter by spray drying technique:New breadmaking perspective. LWT 99: 468-475.
  55. De Vuyst L, Neysens P. 2005. The sourdough microflora: biodiversity and metabolic interactions. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 16: 4356.
  56. Catzeddu P. 2019. Chapter 14 - Sourdough Breads, pp. 177-188. In Preedy VR, Watson RR (eds.), Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention (Second Edition). Academic Press.

Starts of Metrics

Share this article on :

  • mail

Related articles in MBL

Most KeyWord ?

What is Most Keyword?

  • It is most registrated keyword in articles at this journal during for 2 years.