Article Search
닫기

Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters

보문(Article)

View PDF

Molecular and Cellular Microbiology (MCM)  |  Microbiome

Microbiol. Biotechnol. Lett. 2021; 49(4): 587-593

https://doi.org/10.48022/mbl.2108.08006

Received: August 16, 2021; Revised: September 8, 2021; Accepted: September 10, 2021

Determination of Semen Quality and Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern of Bacteria Isolated from Semen of Iraqi Subjects

Anwer Jaber Faisal1 and Hamzah Abdulrahman Salman2*

1Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Al-Farabi University College, Baghdad 10023, Iraq 2Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, College of Medical Sciences Techniques, The University of Mashreq, Baghdad 10022, Iraq

Correspondence to :
Hamzah Abdulrahman Salman,     hamza.alayash@gmail.com

Infertility is a key issue affecting mood and behavior in men. Microorganisms are one of the primary etiological agents that may be associated with infertility. The objective of the present study was to identify bacterial causative agents from the semen of infertile subjects and determine the effect of bacterial infection on sperm quality, as well as determine the susceptibility of these bacteria to drugs. Forty semen samples from 30 infertile patients and 10 fertile individuals were collected. The pH, volume, motility, and concentration of semen were analyzed. The samples were processed and identified by biochemical testing using API identification kits. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined using the disc diffusion method. Abnormal sperm quality was observed. The mean age of the individual and their sperm morphology, concentration, progressive motility, pH level, and pus cell content were 31.9 years, 2.7%, 10.4 million/ml, 27.3%, 8.3, and 5.7, respectively. Among the tested samples, oligoasthenozoospermia was found to show the highest occurrence, at 27/30 samples, followed by teratozoospermia, at 25/30 samples, and asthenozoospermia, at 22/ 30 samples. Of the tested infertile patients' sperm, 19, 6, and 5 isolates were identified as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. The results also revealed multi-drug resistance in the bacteria. Compared to that shown by the other tested antibiotics, amikacin showed higher activity against all isolated bacteria. However, the bacteria exhibited maximum resistance against gentamicin, cefotaxime, levofloxacin, and ampicillin. In conclusion, leukocytospermia and bacterial infections are possibly responsible for sperm abnormalities. Multi-drug resistant bacteria were detected. Gentamicin, cefotaxime, levofloxacin and ampicillin were shown the highest resistance, while amikacin was the most effective antimicrobial agent against the isolated bacteria.

Keywords: Infertility, multi-drug resistant, antibiotics, amikacin, Leukocytospermia, E. coli

Graphical Abstract


  1. Jodar M, Soler-Ventura A, Oliva R. 2017. Semen proteomics and male infertility. J. Proteomics 162: 125-134.
    Pubmed
  2. Berjis K, Ghiasi M, Sangy S. 2018. Study of seminal infection among an infertile male population in Qom, Iran, and its effect on sperm quality. Iranian J. Microbiol. 10: 111-116.
  3. Pellati D, Mylonakis I, Bertoloni G, Fiore C, Andrisani A, Ambrosini G, et al. 2008. Genital tract infections and infertility. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 140: 3-11.
    Pubmed
  4. Xiong S, Liu X, Deng W, Zhou Z, Li Y, Tu Y, et al. 2020. Pharmacological Interventions for Bacterial Prostatitis. Front. Pharmacol. 11: 504.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  5. Ferrer MS, Palomares R. 2018. Aerobic uterine isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility in mares with post-partum metritis. Equine Vet. J. 50: 202-207.
    Pubmed
  6. Ferris RA, McCue PM, Borlee GI, Glapa KE, Martin KH, Mangalea MR, et al. 2017. Model of chronic equine endometritis involving a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. Infect. Immun. 85: e00332-17.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  7. Micillo A, Vassallo MR, Cordeschi G, D'Andrea S, Necozione S, Francavilla F, et al. 2016. Semen leukocytes and oxidativedependent DNA damage of spermatozoa in male partners of subfertile couples with no symptoms of genital tract infection. Andrology 4: 808-815.
    Pubmed
  8. World Health, O, 2010. WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen in, World Health Organization, Geneva.
  9. Moustafa MH, Sharma RK, Thornton J, Mascha E, Abdel-Hafez MA, Thomas AJ, et al. 2004. Relationship between ROS production, apoptosis and DNA denaturation in spermatozoa from patients examined for infertility. Hum. Reprod. 19: 129-138.
    Pubmed
  10. Keck C, Gerber-Schäfer C, Clad A, Wilhelm C, Breckwoldt M. 1998. Seminal tract infections: impact on male fertility and treatment options. Hum. Reprod. Update 4: 891-903.
    Pubmed
  11. Shirani K, Seydayi E, Boroujeni KS. 2019. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of extended-spectrum beta-lactamaseproducing Escherichia coli in clinical specimens. J. Res. Med. Sci. 24: 103.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  12. Muhammad A, Khan SN, Ali N, Rehman MU, Ali I. 2020. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of uropathogens in outpatients at a tertiary care hospital. New Microbes New Infect. 36: 100716.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  13. Salman HA, Abdulmohsen AM, Falih MN, Romi ZM, 2021. Detection of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi isolated from Iraqi subjects. Vet. World 14: 19221928.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  14. Dolk FCK, Pouwels KB, Smith DRM, Robotham JV, Smieszek T. 2018. Antibiotics in primary care in England: which antibiotics are prescribed and for which conditions? J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 73: ii2-ii10.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  15. Mishra MP, Sarangi R, Padhy RN. 2016. Prevalence of multidrug resistant uropathogenic bacteria in pediatric patients of a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. J. Infect. Public Health 9: 308314.
    Pubmed
  16. Lee DS, Lee SJ, Choe HS. 2018. Community-acquired urinary tract infection by Escherichia coli in the era of antibiotic resistance. Biomed. Res. Int. 2018: 7656752.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  17. Gadisa E, Tadesse E. 2021. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants used for urinary tract infections in pastoralist community in Ethiopia. BMC Complement. Med. Ther. 21: 74.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  18. Salman HA, Venkatesh S, Senthilkumar R, Gnanesh Kumar BS, Ali AM. 2018. Determination of antibacterial activity and metabolite profile of Ruta graveolens against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. J. Lab. Physicians 10: 320-325.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  19. Salman HA, Senthilkumar RJAJPCR. 2015. Antibacterial activity of Annona squamosa L. and Annona reticulata L. against clinical isolates of mutans streptococci the causative agents of dental caries. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 8: 152-155.
  20. Dutta S, Majzoub A, Agarwal A. 2019. Oxidative stress and sperm function: A systematic review on evaluation and management. Arab J. Urol. 17: 87-97.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  21. Shalika S, Dugan K, Smith RD, Padilla SL. 1996. The effect of positive semen bacterial and Ureaplasma cultures on in-vitro fertilization success. Hum. Reprod. 11: 2789-2792.
    Pubmed
  22. Weinstein MP, Lewis JS, 2nd. 2020. The clinical and laboratory standards institute subcommittee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing: Background, organization, functions, and processes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 58: e01864-01819.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  23. Salman HA, Senthikumar RJJAPS. 2015. Identification and antibiogram profile of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus from dental caries subjects. J. App Pharm Sci. 5: 54-57.
  24. Harris ID, Fronczak C, Roth L, Meacham RB. 2011. Fertility and the aging male. Rev. Urol. 13: e184-e190.
  25. Vilvanathan S, Kandasamy B, Jayachandran AL, Sathiyanarayanan S, Tanjore Singaravelu V, Krishnamurthy V, et al. 2016. Bacteriospermia and its impact on basic semen parameters among infertile men. Interdiscip. Perspect. Infect. Dis. 2016: 2614692.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  26. Fraczek M, Kurpisz M. 2015. Mechanisms of the harmful effects of bacterial semen infection on ejaculated human spermatozoa:potential inflammatory markers in semen. Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 53: 201-217.
    Pubmed
  27. Damirayakhian M, Jeyendran RS, Land SA. 2006. Significance of semen cultures for men with questionable semen quality. Arch. Androl. 52: 239-242.
    Pubmed
  28. Daneshmandpour Y, Bahmanpour Z, Hamzeiy H, Mazaheri Moghaddam M, Mazaheri Moghaddam M, Khademi B, et al. 2020. MicroRNAs association with azoospermia, oligospermia, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia: a systematic review. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 37: 763-775.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  29. Perrin A, Nguyen MH, Douet-Guilbert N, Morel F, De Braekeleer M. 2013. Motile sperm organelle morphology examination:where do we stand 12 years later? Expert Rev. Obstet. Gynecol. 8: 249-260.
  30. Shahrokhi SZ, Salehi P, Alyasin A, Taghiyar S, Deemeh MR. 2020. Asthenozoospermia: Cellular and molecular contributing factors and treatment strategies. Andrologia 52: e13463.
  31. Alahmar AT. 2019. Role of oxidative stress in male infertility: An updated review. J. Hum. Reprod. Sci. 12: 4-18.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  32. Bai S, Li Y, Wan Y, Guo T, Jin Q, Liu R, et al. 2021. Sexually transmitted infections and semen quality from subfertile men with and without leukocytospermia. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 19: 92.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  33. Bezold G, Politch JA, Kiviat NB, Kuypers JM, Wolff H, Anderson DJ. 2007. Prevalence of sexually transmissible pathogens in semen from asymptomatic male infertility patients with and without leukocytospermia. Fertil. Steril. 87: 1087-1097.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  34. Machen GL, Bird ET, Brown ML, Ingalsbe DA, East MM, Reyes M, et al. 2018. Time trends for bacterial species and resistance patterns in semen in patients undergoing evaluation for male infertility. Proc. (Bayl. Univ. Med. Cent.). 31: 165-167.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  35. Abeysundara PK, Dissanayake D, Wijesinghe PS, Perera R, Nishad A. 2013. Efficacy of two sperm preparation techniques in reduc ing non-specific bacterial species from human semen. J. Hum. Reprod. Sci. 6: 152-157.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  36. Prabha V, Sandhu R, Kaur S, Kaur K, Sarwal A, Mavuduru RS, et al. 2010. Mechanism of sperm immobilization by Escherichia coli. Adv. Urol. 2010: 240268.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  37. Nabi A, Khalili MA, Halvaei I, Ghasemzadeh J, Zare E. 2013. Seminal bacterial contaminations: Probable factor in unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. Iran. J. Reprod. Med. 11: 925-932.
  38. Owolabi AT, Fasubaa OB, Ogunniyi SO. 2013. Semen quality of male partners of infertile couples in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Niger. J. Clin. Pract. 16: 37-40.
    Pubmed
  39. Isaiah IN, Nche BT, Nwagu IG, Nnanna II. 2011. Current studies on bacterospermia the leading cause of male infertility: a protégé and potential threat towards mans extinction. N. Am. J. Med. Sci. 3: 562-564.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  40. Cunningham KA, Beagley KW. 2008. Male genital tract chlamydial infection: implications for pathology and infertility. Biol. Reprod. 79: 180-189.
    Pubmed
  41. Mehta RH, Sridhar H, Vijay Kumar BR, Anand Kumar TC. 2002. High incidence of oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia in human semen infected with the aerobic bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Reprod. Biomed. Online 5: 17-21.
  42. Polat M, Kara SS. 2017. Once-daily intramuscular amikacin for outpatient treatment of lower urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in children. Infect. Drug Resist. 10: 393-399.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  43. Rodrigues D, Baldissera GS, Mathos D, Sartori A, Zavascki AP, Rigatto MH. 2021. Amikacin for the treatment of carbapenemresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections: clinical efficacy and toxicity. Braz. J. Microbiol. doi: 10.1007/s42770-021-00551-x.
    Pubmed
  44. Rizwan M, Akhtar M, Najmi AK, Singh K. 2018. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae sensitivity/resistance pattern towards antimicrobial agents in primary and simple urinary tract infection patients visiting university hospital of Jamia Hamdard New Delhi. Drug Res. (Stuttg). 68: 415-420.
    Pubmed
  45. Fanos V, Verlato G, Dal Moro A, Chiaffoni GP, Padovani EM. 1995. Staphylococcus epidermidis isolation and antibiotic resistance in a neonatal intensive care unit. J. Chemother. 7: 26-29.
    Pubmed
  46. Sorlózano-Puerto A, Gómez-Luque JM, Luna-del-Castillo JdD, Navarro-Marí JM, Gutiérrez-Fernández J. 2017. Etiological and resistance profile of bacteria involved in urinary tract infections in young children. BioMed Res. Int. 2017: 4909452.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  47. Kibret M, Abera B. 2014. Prevalence and antibiogram of bacterial isolates from urinary tract infections at Dessie Health Research Laboratory, Ethiopia. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 4: 164-168.
  48. Sabir S, Ahmad Anjum A, Ijaz T, Asad Ali M, Ur Rehman Khan M, Nawaz M. 2014. Isolation and antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli from urinary tract infections in a tertiary care hospital. Pakistan J. Med. Sci. 30: 389-392.
  49. Sorlozano A, Jimenez-Pacheco A, de Dios Luna Del Castillo J, Sampedro A, Martinez-Brocal A, Miranda-Casas C, et al. 2014. Evolution of the resistance to antibiotics of bacteria involved in urinary tract infections: a 7-year surveillance study. Am. J. Infect. Control. 42: 1033-1038.
    Pubmed
  50. Iqbal Z, Mumtaz MZ, Malik A. 2021. Extensive drug-resistance in strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from paediatric urinary tract infections. J. Taibah Univ. Med. Sci. 16:565-574
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  51. Zhao F, Yang H, Bi D, Khaledi A, Qiao M. 2020. A systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic resistance patterns, and the correlation between biofilm formation with virulence factors in uropathogenic E. coli isolated from urinary tract infections. Microb. Pathog. 144: 104196.
    Pubmed
  52. Aboderin OA, Abdu AR, Odetoyin BW, Lamikanra A. 2009. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains from urinary tract infections. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 101: 1268-1273.
  53. Critchley IA, Cotroneo N, Pucci MJ, Jain A, Mendes RE. 2020. Resistance among urinary tract pathogens collected in Europe during 2018. J. Glob Antimicrob. Resist. 23: 439-444.
    Pubmed
  54. Seifu WD, Gebissa AD. 2018. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Uropathogens from cases of urinary tract infections (UTI) in Shashemene referral hospital, Ethiopia. BMC Infect. Dis. 18: 30.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  55. Ranjbar R, Nazari S, Farahani O. 2020. Phylogenetic analysis and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli strains isolated from UTI-suspected patients. Iran J. Public Health. 49: 1743-1749.
  56. Parra-Ruiz J, Vidaillac C, Rybak MJ. 2012. Macrolides and staphylococcal biofilms. Rev. Esp. Quimioter. 25: 10-16.
  57. Bleyzac N, Goutelle S, Bourguignon L, Tod M. 2020. Azithromycin for COVID-19: More than just an antimicrobial? Clin. Drug Investig. 40: 683-686.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  58. Božić DD, Pavlović B, Milovanović J, Jotić A, Čolović J, Ćirković I. 2018. Antibiofilm effects of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and levofloxacin in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 275: 2051-2059.
    Pubmed
  59. Szczuka E, Kaznowski A. 2014. Antimicrobial activity of tigecycline alone or in combination with rifampin against Staphylococcus epidermidis in biofilm. Folia Microbiol. (Praha). 59: 283-288.
    Pubmed

Starts of Metrics

Share this article on :

  • mail

Related articles in MBL

Most KeyWord ?

What is Most Keyword?

  • It is most registrated keyword in articles at this journal during for 2 years.