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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters

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Microbial Biotechnology

Microbiol. Biotechnol. Lett. 2020; 48(4): 471-479

https://doi.org/10.48022/mbl.2004.04008

Received: April 20, 2020; Accepted: July 28, 2020

Anti-oxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects of the Fermented Rhododendron weyrichii Flower Extracts in Shindari, a Traditional Jeju Fermented Drink

Nari Lee, Su Bin Hyun, Suk Hyun Yun, You Chul Chung and Chang-Gu Hyun*

Department of Chemistry and Cosmetics, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to :
Chang-Gu Hyun,     cghyun@jejunu.ac.kr

The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the Rhododendron weyrichii flower extract fermented using Shindari, a traditional Jeju barley Nuruk-based fermentation. In this study, we examined the antioxidant potential of R. weyrichii flower extracts (RF) and R. weyrichii flower extracts fermented with Nuruk or Shindari (RFFN or RFFS, respectively) using various in vitro antioxidant assays including DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays, total phenol content and FRAP assays. We also evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of the RF and RFFS on murine RAW 264.7 cells. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by treating the RAW 264.7 cells with various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 μg/ml) of RF or RFFS. As a result, we observed that the ABTS radical scavenging activity and total phenol content of RFFS was higher than that of RF and RFFN. Additionally, lipopolysaccharide- induced nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly lower in RFFS-treated cells when compared to the LPS-treated control. In addition, RFFS-treated cells exhibited decreased expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) proteins and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed that both the quercetin and quercetin glucoside (quercitrin and isoquercitrin) levels were affected by the fermentation process. In conclusion, our data suggests that traditional fermentation could be an important strategy in improving the biological properties of raw materials including their antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. Finally, RFFS may be a candidate for developing topical antioxidant and antiinflammatory agents.

Keywords: Fermentation, Rhododendron, Nuruk, inflammatory, Shindari

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